The Important Of Total Quality Management And Sustainability Herbs Industry Business In Malaysia

Main Article Content

Hajjah Mazita Binti Mokhtar Noor Azlinna Binti Azizan


This paper discusses the importance of quality management in confirming the success of every herbs industry business in Malaysia. The research paper to be focused issues on identifying and removing the causes of errors in the production line. The reason of choosing this topic because to ensure the product can be marketed success throughout Malaysia and global.There will be lot of activities; systems, procedure and regulation need to be fulfilled. Many things need to be done by entrepreneurs to produce quality products. Besides that Deming’s theory management especially stresses improving quality for sustainability in productivity will be used in this research paper. This concept paper will benefit to all Malaysian entrepreneurs that involve in herbs industry.

Article Details

How to Cite
MOKHTAR, Hajjah Mazita Binti; BINTI AZIZAN, Noor Azlinna. The Important Of Total Quality Management And Sustainability Herbs Industry Business In Malaysia. International Journal for Innovation Education and Research, [S.l.], v. 2, n. 2, p. 11-20, feb. 2014. ISSN 2411-2933. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 29 mar. 2017.


Ames Gross and Rachel Weintraub, Pacific Bridge Medical (2005)
A. Khan, J. Allgood, L.A. Walker, E.A. Abourashed , D. Schelenk and W.H. Benson, Determination of
heavy metals and pesticides in ginseng products, J. Assoc. Anal. Chem.84 (2001), pp. 936–939.
A.H. MacLennan, D.H. Wilson and A.W. Taylor, Prevalence and cost of alternative medicine in Australia,
Lancet347 (1996), pp. 569–573.
A.M. Au, R. Ko, F.O. Boo, R. Hsu, G. Perez and Z. Yang, Screening methods for drugs and heavy metals
in. Chinese patent medicines, Bull. Environ. Contamin.Toxicol.65 (2000), pp. 112–119
A.M. Li, M.H. Chan, T.F. Leung, R.C. Cheung, C.W. Lam and T.F. Fok , Mercury intoxication presenting
with tics, Arch. Dis. Childhood83 (2000), pp. 174–175
absorption spectrophotometry. Perkin–Elmer Corporation, CT, USA, pp. 1–8.
Abegglen, James C. 2006 21st-century Japanese management: new systems, lasting values
Adam Jr.,E.E.,1994. Alternative quality improvement practices and organisation
performance. Jurnal of Operations Management 12,pp 27-44 Abstract |PDF (1649)| View
Record in Scopus | Cited By In Scopus (84)
Ahire, S.L., Goihar, D.Y. and Waller, M.A.,1996. Development and validation of TQM
implementation constructs. Decision Sciences 27 1, pp. 23-56 Full Text via Cross Ref
Ahsan, A.A., 2000. Ubattradisionalturutrosakkanbuahpinggang (Traditional medicines cause kidney
damage).Utusan Malaysia, 5 August, 2.
Anderson, C. & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and
recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin 103 (3), 411-423.
AMC, 1994, Leading the Way: A study of best manufacturing practices in Australia and New
Zealand, Australia Manufacturing Council, November.
Armand V. Feigenbaum, (August 1, 2004). Total Quality Control, 4th edition, McGraw- Hill
Australian Quality Council, 1994, Australian Quality award criteria assessment
guidelines, Sydney, Australia.
Bass, B. M., 1985. Eadership and performance, Free Press, New York.
Beaty, R.D., Kerber, J.D., 1993.Concepts, instrumentation and techniques in atomic
Bemowski, K. And Stratton, B., 1995. How do people use the Baldrige award criteria. Quality
Progress 28 5, pp. 43-47 View Record in Scopus | Cited by in Scopus (14) Bentler, 1993. Berita Harian,24.4.2006
Bhide.A (2000).The Origin and Evolution of New Businesses
Breimer and P. Speiser, Editors, Top. Pharm. Sci., Elsevier Science, Amsterdam (1983), pp. 417–
Bruce, Anne, (2003). How to motivate every employee: 24 proven tactics to spark productivity in
the workplace
Business Times (NST), 29.12.2005
Butterworth Heinemann
Byrne, B.M. (2010). Structural Equation Modeling with AMOS: Basic
Concepts,Applications, and Programming, 2nd edition. New York: Routledge Taylor and Francis
C.Ong and J. Norzalina, Malay herbal medicine in Gemencheh, Negri Sembilan, Malaysia, Fitoterapia70
(1999), pp. 10–14.
C.Chuang, K.S. Chen, Y.L. Huang, P.N. Lee and T.H. Lin, Determination of trace elements in some natural
drugs by atomic absorption spectrometry, Biol. Trace. Elem. Res.76 (2000), pp. 235–244.
C.G. Bruhn, A.A. Rodriguez, C. Barrios and V.H. Jaramillo, Determination of total mercury in scalp hair
of humans by gold amalgamation cold–vapour atomic absorption spectrometry,J.
Anal.Atom.Spectrom.9 (1994), pp. 535–541.
C.M.Y. Choy, C.W.K. Lam, L.T.F. Cheung, C.M. Briton-Jones, L.P. Cheung and C.J. Haines, Infertility,
bloodmercury concentrations and dietary seafood consumption: a case-control study, BJOG Int. J.
Obstet. Gyn.109 (2002), pp. 1121–1125.
Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S.G., & Aiken, L. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation
analysis for the behavioral sciences. (3rd ed.).
Creswell, J.W. (2003). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (2nd
ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Creswell, J.W. (2005) Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating qualitaive and
quantitative research (2nd ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.
Curran, P. J., West, S. G., & Finch, J. F. (1996). The robustness of test statistics to
nonnormality and specification error in confirmatory factor analysis. Psychological Methods, 1, 16-
D. Eisenberg, R.B. David, S.L. Ettner, S. Appel, S. Wilkey and M.V. Rompayet al., Trends in alternative
medicine use in the United States, 1990–1997, J. Am. Med. Assoc.280 (1998), pp. 1569–1575.
De Vaus, D. (2001). Research Design in Social Research. London: Sage Publications.
Drucker.P(1994)Innovation and Entrepreneurship,
E. Ernst and A.R. White, The BBC survey of Complementary Medicine use in the UK,Complementary Therap. Med.8 (2000), pp. 32–36.
E. Ernst and J.G. Lauritsen, Effect of organic and inorganic mercury on human sperm motility, Pharmacol.
Toxicol.68 (1991), pp. 440–444.
E. Ernst, M. Christensen and J.G. Lauritsen, In vitro exposure of human spermatozoa to mercuric chloride
– a histochemical study, Prog. Histochem.Cytochem.23 (1991), pp. 263–268.
E. Ernst, Risks associated with complementary therapies. In: M.N.G. Dukes and K. Aronson, Editors,
Meyler’s Side Effects of Drugs, Elsevier, Amsterdam (2000), pp. 1649–1681.
E. Ernst, The role of complementary and alternative medicine, Brit. Med. J.321 (2000), pp. 1133–1135.
E. Ernst, Why complementary medicine?,Perfusion11 (1999), p. 437.
E. Kang-Yum and S.H. Oransky, Chinese patent medicine as a potential source of mercury poisoning, Vet.
Hum. Toxicol.34 (1992), pp. 235–239.
E. J. Newman, Quality in the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, John Wiley (1995), pp. 33–66.
E. O. Espinoza, M.J. Mann and B. Bleasdell, Arsenic and mercury in traditional Chinese herbal balls
[letter], New Engl. J. Med.333 (1995), pp. 803–804.
Friedman, R.A., 1996. Natural doesn’t mean safe. The New York Times, 19 April, A29.
G. Lindstedt, A rapid method for the determination of mercury in the urine, Analyst95 (1970), pp.
G.J. Garvey, G. Hahn, R.V. Lee and R.D. Harbison, Heavy metal hazards of Asian traditional remedies,
Int. J. Environ. Health Res.11 (2001), pp. 63–71.
Green, Thad, (2000). Motivation management: fuelling performance by discovering what people
believe about themselves and their organizations
H. Sastre, A. Sahuquillo, M. Vidal and G. Rauret, Determination of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in environmental
samples: microwave-assisted total digestion versus aqua regia and nitric acid extraction, Anal.
Chim.Acta464 (2002), pp. 59–72.
H. Schilcher, Contamination of natural products with pesticides and heavy metals. In: D.D.
H.H.Ang and K.L.Lee, Contamination of Mercury in Tongkat Ali Hitam Herbal Preparation
H.I. Popescu, Poisoning with alkylmercury compounds, Bri. Med. J.1 (1978), p. 1347.
Hair, J.F., Black, B., Babin, B., Anderson, R.E., &Tatham, R.L. (2005). Multivariate Data
Analysis.6th Edition. New York: Prentice Hall.
Harold Koontz & Heinz Wiehrich (1992).Pengurusan, Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka
Hickman & Robinson G., (2010). Leading change in multiple contexts: concepts and practices in
organizational, community, political, social, and global change settings
Holmbeck, G. N., (2002). Post-hoc probing of significant moderational and mediational effects
in studies of pediatric populations. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, Special Issue on Methodology and Design 27(1), 87-96.
J. Kew, C. Morris and A. Aihic, Arsenic and mercury intoxication due to Indian ethnic remedies, Brit. Med.
J.306 (1993), pp. 506–507.
J. Treleavan, S. Meller, P. Farmer, D. Birchall, J. Goldman and G. Piller, Arsenic and ayurveda, Leuk.
Lymphoma10 (1993), pp. 343–345.
Jaafar, L., 1995. Penilaiankualitiubat-ubatantradisionaluntukujianpendaftaran.(Evaluation of the quality
of traditional medicines for testing prior to registration). In: Proceedings of the Paper Presented
at the National Convention for Medicinal Plants, Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur,
Malaysia, 13–15 October, pp.41–47.Journal H Experimental Toxicology,2003
Kamarudin, M.S., Latiff, A., 2002. TumbuhanUbatan Malaysia, UniversitiKebangsaan Malaysia and
Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment, Malaysia, pp. 625.
Kerajaan Negeri Pahang (2004)Maklumat Asas Sektor PertanianKuantan:Jabatan Pertanian Negeri Pahang
Kerajaan Negeri Pahang. (2002) Merancang Masa Depan Pahang,Rancangan Struktur Negeri
PahangKuantan:Jabatan Perancang Negeri Pahang
Kline, R. B. (1998). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. NY: Guilford Press.
Kotler,.P. (1991). Marketing Management, Analysis, Planning, Implementation, and Control.7th Edition.
Prentice-Hall International
Kotler.P (2000).Marketing Management.Millenium Edition Prentice Hall International Inc.
Kuala Lumpur,ECERDC (2008) Imbasan Pembangunan Wilayah Ekonomi Pantai Timur(ECERDC),2008
Kuala Lumpur: Kementerian Pertanian Malaysia.
Leech, N.L., Barret, K.C., & Morgan, G.A. (2008). SPSS for intermediate statistics: Use and interpretation.
3th Edition. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Leedy, P., &Ormrod, J.(2005). Practical research: Planning and design (8th ed.). Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson/Merrill Prentice Hall.
M., Alpert, F., Perner, L. International Journal of Research in Market segmentation for competitive product
diffusion models". (1999) Michael A. Kamins, Valerie S. Folkes and Lars Perner Journal of
Consumer Psychology, Vol. 6, No. 2 (1997), pp. 165-187
M.K.Wong, P. Tan and Y.C. Wee, Heavy metals in some Chinese herbal plants, Biol. Trace Elem. Res.36
(1993), pp. 135–142.
Mahmood.M,(2008 )Bioteknologi Dalam Perubatan
Malaysia (2003) Annual report national pharmaceutical control bureau. 2003. National pharmaceutical
control bureau, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, pp. 16–17.
Malaysia Newsletter of the Drug Control Authority Malaysia, 2001. vol. 18. National Pharmaceutical
Control Bureau, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, pp. 8–9.
Malaysia ( 2008 ), Di Luar Lingkaran: Usaha bangun bioteknologi berliku Kementerian Sains,Teknologi
dan Inovasi.
Malaysia (1999).Dasar Pertanian Negara Ketiga(1998-2010)-Dimensi Baru.
Malaysia (2008),Industries in Malaysia .Malaysia Industrial Development Authority.
Malaysia (2009). National Timber Industry Policy 2009-2020.
Malaysia Compendium of Medicinal Plants used in Malaysia, 2002, vol. 2. Herbal Medicine Research
Group, Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 245–246.
Malaysian Adverse Drug Reactions Advisory Committee (MADREC) Annual Report, 2000- 2008
Malaysian Organization of Pharmaceutical Industries (MOPI),Module 5: Good Quality Control Laboratory
Practices, (2010)
Meyers, L.S., Gamst, G., and Guarino, A.J. (2006). Applied Multivariate Research: Design and
Interpretation. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, Inc
Michael A. Kamins, Valerie S. Folkes and Lars PernerJournal of Consumer Psychology, Vol. 6, No. 2
(1997), pp. 165-187 (article consists of 23 pages)
MichealTreacy and Fred Wiersema.,(2003), The Discipline of Market Leaders
Ministry of Plantation Industries and Commodities.
Muhamad, Z., Mustafa, A.M., 1994. Traditional malay medicinal plants, FajarBaktiSdn. Bhd., Kuala
Lumpur, pp. 40.
N.S. Sheerin, P.N. Monk, M. Aslam and H. Thurston, Simultaneous exposure to lead, arsenic, and mercury
from Indian ethnic remedies, Bri. J. Clin. Pharmacol.48 (1994), pp. 332–333.
Ng, S.A., 2004. Steroids among drugs seized. The Star, 26 May 4.
Ong.H.H.(2008).Tumbuhan Liar Khasiat & Kegunaan Lain.
Oxford University Press
P.W. Woods, Herbal healing, Essence30 (1999), pp. 42–46.
R.J. Ko, Adulterants in Asian patent medicines, New. Eng. J. Med.339 (1998), p. 847
Ramli A.G.” Bio Herbal” Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia
Ramli, A.G., 2001. Regulatory control on toxic heavy metals and therapeutic drugs. In: Proceedings of the
Paper Presented at the Third International Congress of the Asia Pacific Association of Medical
Toxicology, Abstract 95, Bayview Beach Resort, Penang, Malaysia, 12–15 November.
Robert A. Yaffee, 2000.An Introduction to Time Series Analysis and Forecasting: With Applications of SAS® and SPSS
Rothwell & William J., (2005). Beyond training and development: the groundbreaking classic on
human performance enhancement
S. Landi and F. Fagioli, The Adaptation of the dichromate digestion method for total mercury determination
by cold–vapour atomic absorption spectrometry to the analysis of soils, sediments, and sludges,
Anal. Chim.Acta298 (1994), pp. 363–374.
S.B. Adeloju, H.S. Dhindsa and R.K. Tandon, Evaluation of some wet decomposition methods for mercury
determination in biological and environmental materials by cold–vapour atomic absorption
spectroscopy, Anal. Chim.Acta285 (1994), pp. 359–364.
S.B. Adeloju, H.S. Dhindsa and R.K. Tandon, Evaluation of some wet decomposition methods for mercury
determination in biological and environmental materials by cold–vapour atomic absorption
spectroscopy, Anal. Chim.Acta285 (1994), pp. 359–364.
Saras, L., 2003. Protect traditional medicine industry. Medical Tribune 1–15 February, pp. 5.
Shamala, G., 2001. Concern over safety of herbal remedies.The Sun, 3rd June, pp. 15.
Sikora D. & Hattan J., (2009). Business and production for games: a
Siti Z.T, (2008) Tumbuhan Sebagai Ubat-Ubatan
Stevens, J.P. (2002). Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences (4th ed). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Taha, A.M., 2002. Traditional/complementary medicine in the Malaysian health care system. In:
Proceedings of the Keynote Address Presented at the Fourth International Conference for
Traditional/Complementary Medicine, Sunway Pyramid Convention Centre, 14 October.
Tiantoro Safaria,2011.Relationship between leadership practices, role stressor,religious copingand job
insecurity with job stress among university academic staff: A mixed –method cross cultural study
USA ,Environmental Protection Agency. EPA test methods for evaluating solid waste, 1986, vol. 1, A.
Laboratory manual physical/chemical methods, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington,
Utusan Malaysia,26.6.2008.Malaysia Mendahului Singapura Dalam Bioteknologi
Utusan Malaysia,9.7.2007,Kopi Tongkat Ali Kurang Khasiatnya.Dr. Rasadah Mat Ali.
Utusan Publications & Distributors Sdn. Bhd.
Utusan Malaysia ,20.6.2008, Syarikat India Labur RM450 juta majukan bio terapeutik.Lukman Ismail
V.P. Antonovich and I.V. Bezlutskaya, Speciation of mercury in environmental samples, J. Anal. Chem.51 (1996), pp. 106–113.
W.C. Schefler, Statistics for health professionals, addison-wesley Publishing Company, MA, USA (1984), pp. 107–123.
W.L. Liang, S.W. Lin, K.Y. Yen and L.L. Yang, Metal element analysis of commercial Chinese herbal
medicines, Taiwan Kexue51 (1998), pp. 37–56.
W.M. Gessler, Therapeutic landscapes: medical issues in light of the new cultural geography, Soc. Sci.
Med.34 (1992), pp. 735–746.
WHO. 2002. Herbal medicines, vol. 16. World Health Organization, Geneva.
Wiersema, The Discipline of Market Leaders (1993)
William O. Welsh (III.),. (2007). Transformation Changes Everything: Exploring Organizational
Leadership Challenges in an "aspiring-to" Transformative Environment, ProQuest. World Bank Data Facts,2008
Zaidi, I.I., 2002. Herbal products enjoying growing demand. Dr. Lim. (Ed.), The New Straits Times, 21 August, B6.
Zhang, X.R., 2002. Traditional medicine with health care and the impact of globalization on protection of traditional medicine. In: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on the Impact of Globalization on Development and Health Care Services in Islamic Countries, Kuwait, March.