Parental and Community Involvement as Correlate of Academic Performance Among Senior Secondary Schools in Calabar South, Nigeria

Main Article Content

Abigail Okon
Dr. Anne Emmanuel
Miss Ahemen


Poor quality of academic performance is an issue of concern to members of the society. This deplorable situation is attributed to many factors such as lack of parental and community involvement. This study, therefore, explored the relatedness of parental and community involvement to academic performance in senior secondary schools. To achieve the purpose of the study two research questions were raised. A descriptive survey research design of ex-post facto type was adopted for the study. The sample consisted of 200 senior secondary school students who were selected by stratified random sampling method. Parental and community involvement questionnaire and academic performance test were used for data collection. Data obtained were analysed using multiple regression. Results shows that parental and community involvement in school matters are predictors of academic performance. Hence, Schools and government should focus not only on parental involvement, but also on establishing strong partnerships and relationships with parents and communities.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Okon, A., Omori, A., & Gbande Ahemen, P. (2019). Parental and Community Involvement as Correlate of Academic Performance Among Senior Secondary Schools in Calabar South, Nigeria. International Journal for Innovation Education and Research, 7(5), 182-194.
Author Biographies

Abigail Okon, University of Calabar, Nigeria

Department of Educational Foundations

Dr. Anne Emmanuel, University of Calabar, Nigeria

Institute of Education, Research Fellow 1

Miss Ahemen, University Of Calabar, Nigeria

Department of Educational Foundations, Assistance Lecturer


Akomolafe, M. J. & Olorunfemi-Olabisi, F.A. (2011). Impact of family type on secondary school students’ academic performance in Ondo state, Nigeria. European Journal of Educational Studies, 3(3), pp. 481-487.
Anderson-Butcher, D., Lawson, H. A., Iachini, A., Flaspohler, P., Bean, J., & Wade-Mdivanian, R. (2010). Emergent evidence in support of a community collaboration model for school improvement. Children & Schools, 32(3), pp. 160–171.
Benner A., Boyle A. & Sadler S. (2016). Parental involvement and adolescents’ educational success: the roles of prior achievement and socioeconomic status. Journal of Youth Adolescence, 45, pp. 1053–1064. 10.1007/s10964-016-0431-4
Biag, M. & Castrechini, S. (2016). Coordinated strategies to help the whole child: Examining the contributions of full-service community schools. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 21(3), pp.157–173
Chen, M., Anderson, J. A., & Watkins, L. (2016). Parent perceptions of connectedness in a full service community school project. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25(7), pp. 2268–2278.
Chowa, G., Masa, R. & Tucher, J. (2013). The effects of parental involvement on academic performance of Ghanaian youth: Testing measurement and relation using structural equation modeling children and youth services review, 35 (12), pp. 65-72.
Cosden, M., Morrison, G., Albanese, A.L. & Macias, S. (2001). When homework is not homework: After-school programmes for homework assistance. Educational Psychologist, 36(3), pp. 211-221.
Edinyang, S. D. & Ubi, I. E. (2012). Relative effectiveness of inquiry and expository methods of Art and Social teaching social studies on academic performance of secondary students in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. British Journal Sciences, 8(1), pp. 95-101.
Epstein, J. L. (2011). School, family, and community partnerships: Preparing educators and improving schools (2nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Westview Press.
Fan, X. T. & Chen, M. (2001). Parental involvement and students’ academic achievement: a meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 13, 1–22. 10.1023/A:1009048817385

Faoag, M. S., Chaudhry, A. H., Shafrg, M. & Berham, G. (2011). Factors attending student quality of academic performance: A cases of secondary school level. Journal of quality and Technology Management, 7 (2), pp. 1-14.
Foley, R. (2001). Professional development needs of secondary school principals of collaborative-based service delivery models. The High School Journal, 85(1), pp. 10–23
Gregoric, C. (2013). School–community involvement. Mitcham, Australia: Network for International Education and Values Education
Guolaug, G. (2010). Effects of parental involvement in education: A case study in Nambia unpublished Ph.D dissertation. Faculty of Education Studies University of Iceland.
Hornby, G. & Lafaele, R. (2011). Barriers to parental involvement in education: an explanatory model. Educational Review, 63(1), pp. 37- 52
Hill N. E., Chao R. K. (2009). Families, Schools, and the Adolescent: Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
Hill N. E., Tyson D. F. (2009). Parental involvement in middle school: a meta-analytic assessment of the strategies that promote achievement. Developmental. Psychology, pp. 45740–763. 10.1037/a0015362

Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., Battiato, A. C, Walker, J. M. T., Reed, R. ., DeJong, J. M, & Jones, K. P. (2001). Parental Involvement in homework. Educational Psychologist, 36(3), pp. 195-210.
Ibrahim, A. T. and Bin-Jamil, H. (2012). The nature of parental involvement in the schooling process in Katsina State. Journal of Education and learning, 1(2), pp. 47-52.

Kaiser-Drobney, A. E. (2011). Foreword. In M. P. Miller & J. D. Nendel (Eds.), Service learning in physical education and related professions: A global perspective (pp. xv–xvi). Boston, MA: Jones and Bartlett

Kirby, M. M., & DiPaola, M. F. (2011). Academic optimism and community engagement in urban schools. Journal of Educational Administration, 49(5), pp. 542–562.

Kerlinger, F. N. & Lee, H. B. (2000). Foundations of behavioural research Wadsworth publishers USA.

Meremikwu, A. N., Ekwueme, C.O. & Enukoha, O.I. (2014). Parental Involvement in teaching and learning of mathematics: Strategies and mechanism that matters. International Journal of Research in Basic and Lifelong Learning, 4(1), pp. 88-95.
Nabuzale, K. (2018). Education: Why community involvement in schools is key. New Vision Printing Press.
Okon, A. E. (2009). Teacher and student characteristics, parental and community involvement as correlate of school effectiveness in Cross River State, Nigeria. https:///
Sanders, M.G. (2001). The role of community in comprehensive schools, family and community partnerships. Elementary School Journal, 102, pp. 19-34.
Shumow, L. & Schmidt, J. A. (2014). Parent engagement in science with ninth graders and with students in higher grades. School Community Journal, 24(1), pp. 17–36.
Tolbert, L., & Theobald, P. (2006). Finding their place in the community: Urban education outside the classroom. Childhood Education, 82(5), pp. 271–274.
Topor, D. R., Keane, S. P., Shelton, T. L. & Calkins, S. D. (2010). Parental involvement and student academic performance: A multiple mediational analysis. Journal of Prevention and Intervention Community, 38(3), pp. 183-197.
Umaru, K. (2018). Mass Failure in WAEC Results. Vanguard Newspaper, March, 29th.
Wang, M. & Sheikh-Khalil, S. (2014). Does parental involvement matter for student achievement and mental health in high school? Child Development, 85(2), pp. 610–625.
West, J. M. (2000) increasing parent involvement for student motivation Armidey New South. New South Wales, Australia University of new England, Eric Document Reproduction Service No ED448411.
Wilder, S. (2014) Effects of parental involvement on academic achievement: a meta-synthesis, Educational Review, 66:3, 377-397, DOI: 10.1080/00131911.2013.780009