Innovation, intellectual property and technological transfer by inventors in Brazil

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.31686/ijier.vol8.iss8.2581

Keywords:

Technology, Triple-Helix, Patents

Abstract

Innovation can be understood as a technological asset in relation to the protection of knowledge with regard to intellectual property, and a challenge for universities and companies regarding the transfer of technology, since there are numerous variables that influence even full monetization. It is important to reflect on all the energy expended in relation to the authors involved in this process, having as general objective to analyze the perception of researchers about the processes of protection of intellectual property and its security mechanisms, characteristics of innovation and technology transfer. A structured research was used as a methodology, using the survey method, applied to specialists, with hypotheses formulated, based on the literature review. The results mainly understand that there is a moderate correlation index in quantitative terms of graduate programs and number of patents, by region of Brazil, an awareness in agreement with the elements of protection of intellectual property. In global efforts among researchers, universities and companies, only about 5% of patents have reached the level of royalty generation, demonstrating that the other 95% are still available for potential exploitation for society.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Author Biographies

CARLOS TADEU SANTANA TATUM, FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF SERGIPE

Dr student in Science Intellectual Property by UFS, Master in Intellectual Property by the UFS (2016), expert in Business Marketing by FANESE (2008) and Visual Arts by SENAC / SE (2011), graduated in Graphic Design by Universidade Tiradentes (2004)

Suzana Leitão Russo, Universidade Federal de Sergipe

Post-Doctorate in Technology Transfer from the University of South Florida (USA) (2015/2016), Post-Doctorate in Quantitative Methods Applied to Management by the University of Algarve in Faro/Portugal (2005), PhD in Production Engineering from UFSC (2002), Master in Statistics from PUC/RJ (1993). Associate Professor, Federal University of Sergipe. She was coordinator of the Center for Innovation and Technological Transfer of UFS (2008/2012). She was Coordinator of the Graduate Program in Intellectual Property Science (PPGPI) at UFS (2012/2014). He was President of the Association of the State of Sergipe in Intellectual Property (2013/2015). President of the Academic Association of Intellectual Property since 2015. Editor-in-Chief of Geintec Magazine - Management, Innovation and Technologies. He works in the Area of Intellectual Property and Technology Transfer, Production Engineering and Applied Statistics, with applications on the themes: Statistical Quality Control,Time Series, Forecasting, Technological Prospecting and Technology Transfer.

Maria Emília Camargo, Universidade Federal de Sergipe

Graduated in Statistics from the Federal University of Santa Maria (1977), Bachelor of Administration and Control from the Federal University of Santa Maria (1977), Bachelor of Administrative Sciences from the Federal University of Santa Maria (1975), Bachelor of Economic Sciences From the Federal University of Santa Maria (1979), bachelor's degree in Economics and Marketing from the Federal University of Santa Maria (1977), Master's degree in Production Engineering from the Federal University of Santa Maria (1979) and PhD in Production Engineering from the Federal University santa catarina (1992). Post-doctorate in Statistical Process Control from Kazan Technical State University. Post-doctorate in Quantitative Methods Applied to Management by the University of Algarve Portugal. He held senior internship at the Instituto Superior Técnico de Lisboa, Portugal in Georeferencing applied to the flow of knowledge. Coordinator of the Master's and Doctorate in Administration at the University of Caxias do Sul, from June 2012 to July 2017. Professor and Coordinator at UCS of the Doctorate in Administration in association between the University of Caxias do Sul and PUCRS, from June 2011 to July 2017. Permanent Professor of the Graduate Program in Administration of the University of Caxias do Sul and Graduate Program in Production Engineering, University of Caxias do Sul. She is currently coordinator of the Graduate Program in Production Engineering -UCS. She leads a research group (GPMA) on Multidisciplinary Research in Administration, registered with CNPq Researcher at CNPq level 1-C, in the period 1993-2002. Productivity Scholarship Desen. Tec. and Innovative Extension of CNPq- Level 2 (2013 to 2016). Productivity Researcher at CNPq from 2018. Manager of the Technological Innovation Center of Campos de Cima da Serra. Coordinator of the Graduate Program in Production Engineering since July 2019. Researcher at the Governance, Competitiveness and Public Policy Research Unit (GOVCOPP) of the University of Aveiro - Portugal. His main research interests are: Prospective Scenarios, Productive Arrangements, Social Innovation, Technological Innovation, Knowledge Management, Construction and Scale Validation. Meta-analysis. Neural Network Modeling. Time Series. Patentometry. (Text informed by the author)

Luis Felipe Dias Lopes, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria

Professor Titular do Depto. de Ciências Administrativas da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Líder do Grupo de Pesquisa: COMPORTAMENTO INOVADOR, ESTRESSE E TRABALHO. Graduação em Matemática pela Faculdade Imaculada Conceição (1988), mestrado em Engenharia de Produção pela Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (1994) e doutorado em Engenharia de Produção e Sistemas pela Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (2001). Publicou 223 artigos em periódicos especializados e 572 trabalhos em anais de eventos. Possui 7 livros publicados e 30 capítulos de livros. Participou de 111 eventos. Orientou 3 teses de doutorado, 59 dissertações de mestrado, co-orientou 8, orientou 74 monografias de especialização, 49 trabalhos de iniciação científica e 52 trabalhos de conclusão de curso nas áreas de Administração, Engenharia de Produção, Estatística Aplicada e Enfermagem. Recebeu 20 prêmios e/ou homenagens. Membro do Comitê de Avaliadores do MEC, FAPEMA, FAPESPA e FAPESC. Membro do Comitê Científico da CAPES e CNPq na área de Administração. Tem experiência na área de: - Estatística: com ênfase em Métodos Quantitativos e Análise Multivariada; - Administração, com ênfase em Inovação Tecnológica, Comportamento organizacional e Doenças Comportamentais. Em seu currículo Lattes os termos mais frequentes na contextualização da produção científica, tecnológica são: estatística aplicada, inovação tecnológica, comportamento organizacional e doenças comportamentais. Em suas atividades profissionais interagiu com 1585 colaboradores em co-autorias de projetos, grupos de pesquisa e trabalhos e artigos científicos. (Texto informado pelo autor)

Jonas Pedro Fabris, Universidade Federal de Sergipe

He holds a bachelor's degree in Civil Engineering from the Integrated Regional University of Alto Uruguay and missions (1998) and a master's degree in Civil Engineering from the Federal University of Santa Catarina (2003), a PhD in Intellectual Property Science (PPGPI/UFS) and a research scholar from the University of South Florida (USA). Professor of Civil Engineering at PRONATEC (2014). Volunteer Professor of Statistics at the Federal University of Sergipe (2014/2015). He has experience in Civil Engineering, with emphasis on Civil Construction, Thermal Comfort, Acoustic and Lighting; Planning and Budget of Works; Earthwork. He also works in Technology Transfer. Currently Permanent Professor of the Graduate Program in Intellectual Property Science at UFS.

References

AGARWAL, N.; GROTTKE, M.; MISHRA, S.; BREM, A. A systematic literature review of constraint-based innovations: State of the art and future perspectives. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, v. 64, n. 1, p. 3–15, 2017a.

______. A Systematic Literature Review of Constraint-Based Innovations: State of the Art and Future Perspectives. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, I used in the excellent thesis, v. 64, n. 1, p. 3–15, Feb. 2017b. Available in: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7782762/. Accessed on: 29 Jan. 2018.

AGUILLERA, A. Protection of knowledge: support to inventors in a university of Paraná. Informação@Profissões, v. 2, n. 1, p. 1–21, 2013. Available from:http://www.uel.br/revistas/infoprof/1. Accessed: 8 May 2020.

AHUJA, Suchit; CHAN, Yolande (2009). Digital Innovation: A Frugal Ecosystem Perspective. 2016, [S.l: s.n.], 2016. p. 1–22. Available in: http://aisel.aisnet.org/icis2016/DigitalInnovation/Presentations/10.

APAK, S; ATAY, E. Global innovation and knowledge management practice in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Turkey and the Balkans. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, Query date: 2018-01-24, 2014. Available in:http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S187704281405191X.

ARAÚJO, A. L. C.; CARVALHO, T. V.; QUINTELLA, C.M.; RUSSO, S. L.; & SECOND, G.S. A. NIT NE Network - Reference Texts on Technological Innovation & Entrepreneurship. Aracaju: Academic Association of Intellectual Property - API, 2017. Available from:http://api.org.br/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Livro-Rede-NIT.pdf. Accessed: 29 Jun. 2019.

BAIYERE, Abayomi; HUKAL, Philipp (2004). Digital Disruption: A Conceptual Clarification. 2020, [S.l: s.n.], 2020. Available in: https://hdl.handle.net/10125/64416; DOI:10.24251/HICSS.2020.674

BAS, C. The importance and relevance of frugal innovation to developed markets: milestones towards the economics of frugal innovation. Journal of Innovation Economics, Review, v. 21, n. 3, p. 3, 2016. Available at:http://www.cairn.info/revue-journal-of-innovation-economics-2016-3-page-3.htm.

BASU, R.; BANERJEE, P.; SWEENY. Frugal Innovation: Core Competencies to Address Global Sustainability. Journal of Management for Global Sustainability, v. 1, n. 2, p. 63–82, 2013. Available at:http://journals.ateneo.edu/ojs/index.php/jmgs/article/view/JM2013.01204/1692.

BERTHÉLEMY, M. What drives innovation in nuclear reactors technologies? An empirical study based on patent counts. Cerna: [s.n.], 2012. Available in: https://hal-mines-paristech.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00585316v2. Accessed on: 19 May 2020.

BHATTI, Y.; BASU, R. R.; BARRON, D.; & VENTRESCA, M. J. Emerging Concepts in Innovation. In: IMPERIAL COLLEGE LONDON, University of Oxford (Org.). Frugal Innovation: Models, Means, Methods. London, UK: Cambridge Univeristy Press, 2018a. p. 160–188. Available in: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316986783.009. Accessed: 6 May 2020.

______. Frugal Innovation: models, means, methods. Frugal Innovation. [S.l.]: Cambridge University Press, 2018b.

Brazil. LawNo. 9,279 of May 14, 1996. Regulates industrial property rights and obligations. Presidency of the Federative Republic of Brazil. [S.l: s.n.]. Available in: http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/leis/l9279.htm. Accessed: 2 Jul. 2019.,1996

______. LawNo. 9,610 of February 19, 1998. Brazil: [s.n.]. Available in: http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/leis/l9610.htm. Accessed on: 23 Feb. 2018.,1998

CARVALHO, G. A. DE, AMARAL, H. F.; BATISTA, P. O. DE S.; & RIBEIRO, J. E. Valuation of intangible assets with real options: case study in a technology transfer from the Federal University of Minas Gerais. Navus - Magazine of Management and Technology,p. 07-23, 1 Apr. 2019. Available in: http://navus.sc.senac.br/index.php/navus/article/view/740/pdf.

CARVALHO, S. M.; RENAULT, T. B. Use of Competitive and Technological Intelligence for Patent Filing and Technology Transfer in Technological Innovation Centers. Prospecting Notebooks, v. 12, n. 4, p. 736–749, 2019. Available in: http://dx.doi.org/10.9771/cp.v12i4.23690p736. Accessed: 9 May 2020.

CARVALHO, T. V.; RUSSO, S. L.; ARAuJO, A. L.C.; SECOND, G. S.A.; & QUINTELLA, C.M. NIT NE NETWORK - Reference Texts on Technological Innovation & Entrepreneurship. Aracaju: Academic Association of Intellectual Property, 2017. Available in: http://api.org.br/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Livro-Rede-NIT-NE.pdf. Accessed: 7 May 2020.

CHUKHRAY, N.; MRYKHINA, O. Technology assessment to transfer them from an engineering university to a business environment. Problems and Perspectives in Management, v. 17, n. 4, p. 504–516, 9 Jan. 2020. Available in: https://businessperspectives.org/problems-and-perspectives-in-management/issue-333/technology-assessment-to-transfer-them-from-an-engineering-university-to-a-business-environment. Accessed on: 18 May 2020.

CORSINO, M.; MARIANI, M.; TORRISI, S. Firm strategic behavior and the measurement of knowledge flows with patent citations. Strategic Management Journal, v. 40, n. 7, p. 1040–1069, 29 Jul. 2019. Available at: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/smj.3016. Accessed: 7 May 2020.

DEPASSE, J. W.; LEE, Patrick T. A model for "reverse innovation" in health care. Globalization and Health, v. 9, n. 1, p. 40, 30 Aug. In 2013.

DOMINGOS, L. W. S.; DOMINGOS, L. A. S.; GARCIA, R.; RIBEIRO, S. Comparison between the "Tira" method of technology transfer (TT) and tt management performed at Usp and Unicamp Universities. Prospecting Notebooks, v. 11, n. 5, p. 1305, 2018.

FABRIS, J. P. Connections between companies and universities. 2016. 117 f. Federal University of Sergipe, 2016. Available in: https://ri.ufs.br/handle/riufs/3402.

FENG, Y. The global health community needs innovation and reform. The Lancet Global Health, v. 8, n. 3, p. e325–e326, 1 Mar. 2020. Available in: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2214109X1930556X. Accessed on: 15 May 2020.

PEDROSI FILHO, G. Publish or Patent. Available in: http://ufrr.br/nit/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=121:publicar-ou-patentear&catid=2&Itemid=102. Accessed: 6 May 2020.

FISHER, R. A. Statistical Methods for Research Workers. 6. ed. Edinburg, London: Oliver and Boyd Ltd, 1936. Available in: http://krishikosh.egranth.ac.in/bitstream/1/2048218/1/0039_2689A.pdf. Accessed on: 4 Dec. 2018.

BANCO DO BRASIL FOUNDATION. Activity Report 2018.. Brasília, DF: [s.n.], 2019. Available in: https://www.fbb.org.br/relatorio2018/#/.

GONÇALVES, A. A.; TOMAÉ, M. I. Guidelines for the protection of knowledge: a case study at a university in the State ofParaná. Federal University of Paraná, v. 4, n. 1, p. Capa, 2020. Available in: https://revistas.ufpr.br/atoz/article/view/41882/26058. Accessed: 9 May 2020.

GUIMARÃES, L. S. Nuclear fear. Opinion Notebook. Caderno Opinião: [s.n.], 2016. Available from: https://www.fgv.br/fgvenergia/coluna_opiniao_leonam_medo_nuclear/files/assets/common/downloads/Coluna Opiniao Leoman 2.pdf. Accessed on: 19 May 2020.

HALEVI, O.; CHEN, T.-Y.; LEE, P.S.; MAGDASSI, S.; & HRILJAC, J. A. Nuclear wastewater decontamination by 3D-Printed hierarchical zeolite monoliths. RSC Advances, v. 10, n. 10, p. 5766–5776, 4 Feb. 2020. Available in: http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=C9RA09967K. Accessed on: 19 May 2020.

HARRIS, M.; DADWAL, V.; SYED,S.B. Review of the reverse innovation series in globalization and health – where are we and what else is needed? Globalization and Health, v. 16, n. 1, p. 26, 26 Dec. 2020. Available in:https://globalizationandhealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12992-020-00555-6. Accessed on: 13 May 2020.

HAUSER, G.; DARONCO, E. L.; SOUZA, D. O. G.; & ZEN, A.. Capacity for innovation of technological parks in emerging countries: a methodologicalproposal. 2015, Porto Alegre, RS: [s.n.], 2015.

HENKEL, J.; PANGERL, S. Defensive Publishing - An Empirical Study. SSRN Electronic Journal, 2008. Available in: http://www.ssrn.com/abstract=981444.

HOSSAIN, Mokter(2009). Frugal innovation: A review and research agenda. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 182, n. February, p. 926–936, May 2018. Available in: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0959652618304037.

IRINEU, O.; FREY, A.; TONHOLO, J. Concepts and applications of Technology Transfer. Salvador, BA: Editor of the Federal Institute of Bahia, 2019. Available in: https://portal.ifba.edu.br/prpgi/editora/livros/colecao-profnit/profnit-serie-transferencia-de-tecnologia-volume-i-web-2.pdf. Accessed on: 20 May 2020.

KHELURKAR, N.; SHAH, S.; JESWANI, H. A review of radioactive waste management. 27 Apr. 2015, [S.l.]: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.; 27 Apr. 2015.

KÖR, B.; MADEN, C. The Relationship between Knowledge Management and Innovation in Turkish Service and High-Tech Firms. International Journal of Business and Social Science. [S.l: s.n.], 2013. Available at:

KOTHARI, C. R. Research Methodology - Methods and Techniques. New Delhi: New Age International (P) Ltd.; It's 2010.. Available in: http://www.modares.ac.ir/uploads/Agr.Oth.Lib.17.pdf.

LEITE, R. A. S.; GOMES, I.M.D. A.; RUSSO, S. L.; WALTER, C.C.S. Portfolio evaluation of academic patent: A proposal to Brazil. Journal of Technology Management and Innovation,[s.l.], v. 14, no. 4, p. 66–77, 2019. ISSN: 07182724, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-27242019000400066.

LIKERT, R. A technique for the Measurement of Attitudes. 140. New York: [s.n.], 1932. Available in: https://legacy.voteview.com/pdf/Likert_1932.pdf. Accessed: 7 Dec. 2018.

LIU, Z.;FENG, J.(2009).;WANG, J.(2009). Resource-Constrained Innovation Method for Sustainability: Application of Morphological Analysis and TRIZ Inventive Principles. Sustainability, v. 12, n. 3, p. 917, 2020. Hi D:oi:10.3390/su12030917

LUNDIN J, DUMONT G. Medical mobile technologies - what is needed for a sustainable and scalable implementation on a global scale?. Glob Health Action. 2017;10(sup3):1344046. doi:10.1080/16549716.2017.1344046

MATTEREUM, MATTEREUM. Smart contracts with the legal force of natural language contracts.. [S.l: s.n.], 2020. Available in: https://mattereum.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/mattereum_workingpaper.pdf. Accessed on: 20 May 2020.

MUELLER, S.P.M.; PERUCCHI, V. Universities and the production of patents: topics of interest to the scholar of technological information. Perspectives on Information Science, v. 19, n. 2, p. 15–36, Jun. 2014. Available in: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-99362014000200003&lng=pt&tlng=pt.

NEGRI, F. New paths to innovation in Brazil. Washington: Ed. Wilson Center, 2018.

OECD. Oslo Manual. [S.l.]: OECD Publishing, 2005. Available in: http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/science-and-technology/oslo-manual_9789264013100-en. (The Measurement of Scientific and Technological Activities).

OPPENHEIM, C. A copyright overview. El Profesional de la Información, v. 29, n. 1, 23 Jan. 2020. Available in: https://recyt.fecyt.es/index.php/EPI/article/view/epi.2020.ene.06.

PAIVA, P. H. A.; SHIKI, S. F. N. Patent Valuation Method for NIT-UFSJ. Connections - Science and Technology,v. 11, n. 3, p. 84, 28 Nov. 2017. Available at: http://conexoes.ifce.edu.br/index.php/conexoes/article/view/878.

PARANHOS, J.; CATALDO, B.; PINTO, A. C. de A. Creation, institutionalization and functioning of technological innovation centers in Brazil: characteristics and challenges. REAd. Electronic Journal of Administration (Porto Alegre), [s.l.], v. 24, no. 2, p. 253–280, 2018. ISSN: 1413-2311, DOI: 10.1590/1413-2311.211.84988.

PINTO, M. G.; THOMANN, G.; VILLENEUNE, F. Assistive Products Development: A Framework to Respond to the Value Requirements from Users and Manufacturers Points of View. Procedia CIRP, v. 50, p. 559–564, 2016. Available in: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2016.04.203.

PRIME, M; BHATTI, Y; HARRIS, M. Frugal and Reverse Innovations in Surgery. Global Surgery: The Essentials. Division of Surgery and Cancer, Institute of Global Health Innovation, Imperial College London, St. Mary's Hospital, 10th Floor, QEQM building, Praed Street, London, W2 1NY, United Kingdom: Springer International Publishing, 2017. p. 193–206. Available in: https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85055234015&doi=10.1007%2F978-3-319-49482-1_11&partnerID=40&md5=5bc403c42dbeb7745ccf215e5a6d700a.

PRIYADARSHINI, S. Bollywood takes on menstrual hygiene. Nature, v. 555, n. 7694, p. 27–28, Mar. 2018.

RAHMANI, R.; LI, Y. The Scalable Digital Infrastructure for Sustainable Energy Grid Enabled by Distributed Ledger Technology. Journal of Ubiquitous Systems & Pervasive Networks, v. 12, n. 2, p. 17–24, 2020.

RUSSO, S. L.; FABRIS, J. P.; SILVA-MAN, R. Negotiation, commercialization and transfer of technology. 1. ed. Aracaju: Academic Association of Intellectual Property, 2019. Available in: http://www.api.org.br/bancodearquivos/uploads/39192-livreto-negociação-2019.pdf. Accessed: 29 Jun. 2019.

SAGAFI-NEJAD, T.; BELFIELD, R. Transnational Corporations, Technology Transfer and Development. New York: Pergamon Press Ltd.; It's 1941. Available in: https://books.google.com.br/books?id=uKg5AwAAQBAJ&pg=PA74&lpg=PA74&dq=The+transfer+of+technology+to+developing+countries.+New+York,+Praeger,+1968&source=bl&ots=DPsQWhuai1&sig=ACfU3U2JTAmFCUiA0o-Nou6bZy9xaEk96g&hl=pt-BR&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjL2aGhhcPpAhU6KLkGHb. Accessed on: 20 May 2020.

SANTOS, S. X.; MIRANDA, A. L. B. B.; NODARI, C.H.; FROEHLICH, C.; & SENA, D. C. The strategic role of the military in the policy of novation of higher education institutions in Rio Grande do Norte and Paraíba. Revista Eletrônica Gestão & Sociedade, v. 14, n. 38, 2020. Available in: https://www.gestaoesociedade.org/gestaoesociedade/article/view/3056/1463.

SĂVESCU, D. Importance of intellectual property in technologic transfer. Journal of Research and Innovation for Sustainable Society,v. 2, n. 1, p. 26–31, 30 Mar. 2020. Available from: http://jriss.4ader.ro/pdf/2020-01/04_JRISS Tg Jiu-2-Savescu.pdf. Accessed: 9 May 2020.

SHYAM, A. K. Journal of Medical Thesis: Hypothesis, Intellectual Property and Concept of Defensive Publication. Journal of Medical Thesis, v. editorial, 2014. Available in: http://journalmedicalthesis.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/jmt.2347-5595020.pdf. Accessed on: 24 May 2020.

SOVACOOL, B. K. Rethinking nuclear power. Advanced Studies, v. 26, n. 74, p. 287–292, 2012.

STERNITZKE, C. Knowledge sources, patent protection, and commercialization of pharmaceutical innovations. Research Policy, v. 39, n. 6, p. 810–821, 1 Jul. 2010. Available in: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0048733310000740. Accessed: 7 May 2020.

SYED, S. B.; DADWAL, V.; MARTIN, G.(2009). Reverse innovation in global health systems: towards global innovation flow. Globalization and Health, v. 9, n. 1, p. 36, 2013. Available in: http://globalizationandhealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1744-8603-9-36.

TAVARES, K. R.; PHILIPPI, D. A.; PORTO, B. M. Difficulties in university-company cooperation for innovation in Universities of Mato Grosso do Sul. In: EIGEDIN III. Naviraí-MS: [s.n.], 2019. Available in: https://periodicos.ufms.br/index.php/EIGEDIN/article/view/8790. Accessed: May 21, 2020.

UZOIGWE, C. E.; SHOAIB, A. Patents and intellectual property in orthopaedics and arthroplasty. World Journal of Orthopedics, v. 11, n. 1, p. 1–9, 18 Jan. 2020. Available in: https://www.wjgnet.com/2218-5836/full/v11/i1/1.htm. Accessed on: 14 May 2020.

WESTLAND, J. C. Lower bounds on sample size in structural equation modeling. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications,v. 9, n. 6, p. 476–487, 1 Nov. 2010. Available in: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1567422310000542?via%3Dihub. Accessed on: 4 Dec. 2018.

WEYRAUCH, T.; HERSTATT, C., What is frugal innovation? Three defining criteria. Journal of Frugal Innovation, v. 2, n. 1, p. 1–17, 2017. Available in: https://jfrugal.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s40669-016-0005-y.

WIPO, wipo. World Intellectual Property Report 2019 - The Geography of Innovation: Local Hotspots, Global Networks. [S.l: s.n.], 2019.

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. Stronger Collaboration, Better Health Stronger Collaboration, Better Health. [S.l.]: World Health Organization, 2019. Available in: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/327844/9789243516431-spa.pdf.

Downloads

Published

2020-08-01
CITATION
DOI: 10.31686/ijier.vol8.iss8.2581

How to Cite

TATUM, C. T. S., Russo, S. L., Camargo, M. E., Lopes, L. F. D., & Fabris, J. P. (2020). Innovation, intellectual property and technological transfer by inventors in Brazil. International Journal for Innovation Education and Research, 8(8), 712–736. https://doi.org/10.31686/ijier.vol8.iss8.2581
Received 2020-07-22
Accepted 2020-07-29
Published 2020-08-01

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>