Torrefaction as a Pre-Treatment of Biomass: A Bibliometric Analysis




Bioenergy, Thermoconversion, Sustainability, Research performance, Academic networks


This article sought to investigate biomass torrefaction, analyzing the collaboration network between authors, institutions and countries in order to systematize the dynamics of scientific research on the subject. The systematic evaluation of the articles obtained in the scope of the research was important to provide an overview of the main stakeholders in the academic and institutional scope. This research is characterized as exploratory-descriptive of quantitative nature, whose technical procedure adopted was bibliometric research. A set of 662 documents were extracted from the main collection of Web of Science. The Vosviewer software was used to create scientific collaboration and co-citation networks. It was noted that the number of documents has been growing steadily since 2011, with a high degree of multidisciplinary collaboration and prolific contributions from American and Chinese researchers on this topic. The USA is the country with the largest number of publications (120 publications), followed by China (70 publications). There was a total of 1,894 authors and 594 institutions researching on biomass torrefaction, with SINTEF Energy Research - Norway having the largest number of publications, followed by National Cheng Kung University - Taiwan and Norwegian University of Science and Technology - Norway. The use of bibliometrics proposed here offers a systematic and dynamic approach to scientific research on biomass torrefaction. The identified groupings and collaboration networks presented a specific outline of the contents already published, authors, countries and institutions, in order to contribute as a starting point to future work in the field of biomass torrefaction.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Author Biographies

José Airton de Mattos Carneiro-Junior, Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Bahia, Irecê, State of Bahia, Brazil.

Biofuels Department

Eduardo Oliveira Teles, Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Bahia

Informatic Department

Fabio Matos Fernandes, Bahia State University


Carine Tondo Alves, Federal University of the Reconcavo of Bahia

Department of Energy Engineering

Silvio Alexandre Beisl Vieira de Melo, Federal University of Bahia

Chemical Engineering Department, and Interdisciplinary Center on Energy and Environment

Ednildo Andrade Torres, Federal University of Bahia

Mechanical Engineering Department, and Interdisciplinary Center on Energy and Environment


B. Acharya and A. Dutta (2016). "Fuel property enhancement of lignocellulosic and nonlignocellulosic biomass through torrefaction". Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, 6 (2), 139-149.

A. Álvarez, D. Nogueiro, C. Pizarro, M. Matos and J.L. Bueno (2018). "Non-oxidative torrefaction of biomass to enhance its fuel properties". Energy, 158 1-8.

L.E. Arteaga-Pérez, H. Grandón, M. Flores, C. Segura and S.S. Kelley (2017). "Steam torrefaction of Eucalyptus globulus for producing black pellets: A pilot-scale experience". Bioresource technology, 238 194-204.

Q.-V. Bach, H.-R. Gye, D. Song and C.-J. Lee (2019). "High quality product gas from biomass steam gasification combined with torrefaction and carbon dioxide capture processes". International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 44 (28), 14387-14394.

Q.-V. Bach and Ø. Skreiberg (2016). "Upgrading biomass fuels via wet torrefaction: A review and comparison with dry torrefaction". Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 54 665-677.

X. Bai, G. Wang, D. Wang, Z. Wang, C. He, H. Wu and W. Liu, "Co-pelletization of torrefied wheat straw and peanut shells: The energy consumption and properties of pellets".(2016). American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, 1.

P. Basu, "Torrefaction (Chapter 4)".(2018). Elsevier,

R.B. Bates and A.F. Ghoniem (2013). "Biomass torrefaction: Modeling of reaction thermochemistry". Bioresource technology, 134 331-340.

B. Batidzirai, A. Mignot, W. Schakel, H. Junginger and A. Faaij (2013). "Biomass torrefaction technology: Techno-economic status and future prospects". Energy, 62 196-214.

B. Batidzirai, F. van der Hilst, H. Meerman, M.H. Junginger and A.P. Faaij (2014). "Optimization potential of biomass supply chains with torrefaction technology". Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, 8 (2), 253-282.

P.C. Bergman, A. Boersma, R. Zwart and J. Kiel (2005). "Torrefaction for biomass co-firing in existing coal-fired power stations". Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, ECN-C-05-013,

P.C. Bergman and J.H. Kiel, "Torrefaction for biomass upgrading".(2005). 17-21.

Y. Cao, J. Wu, J. Zhang, H. Li, Y. Zhang and J. He (2009). "Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs): A new and versatile platform for cellulose processing and derivatization". Chemical Engineering Journal, 147 (1), 13-21.

N. Cellatoğlu and M. İlkan (2015). "Torrefaction of solid olive mill residue". BioResources, 10 (3), 5876-5889.

S. Chaluvadi, A. Ujjwal and R. Singh (2019). "Effect of Torrefaction Prior to Biomass Size Reduction on Ethanol Production". Waste Biomass Valorization, 10 (12), 3567-3577.

D. Chen, K. Cen, X. Cao, J. Zhang, F. Chen and J. Zhou (2020). "Upgrading of bio-oil via solar pyrolysis of the biomass pretreated with aqueous phase bio-oil washing, solar drying, and solar torrefaction". Bioresource Technology, 123-130.

W.-H. Chen, J. Peng and X.T. Bi (2015). "A state-of-the-art review of biomass torrefaction, densification and applications". Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 44 847-866.

J.J. Chew and V. Doshi (2011). "Recent advances in biomass pretreatment–Torrefaction fundamentals and technology". Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, 15 (8), 4212-4222.

D. Ciolkosz, J. Desplat and K. Schiffer (2019). "Raw, torrefied, and alkaline-treated biomass as a sorbent for lead in water". BioResources, 14 (4), 8530-8542.

D. Ciolkosz and R. Wallace (2011). "A review of torrefaction for bioenergy feedstock production". Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, 5 (3), 317-329.

J.F. Dallemand, J.A. Hilbert and F. Monforti, "Bioenergy and Latin America: A Multi-Country Perspective".(2015).

A. Dhungana, P. Basu and A. Dutta (2012). "Effects of reactor design on the torrefaction of biomass". Journal of energy resources technology, 134 (4),

T.R.K.C. Doddapaneni, R. Jain, R. Praveenkumar, J. Rintala, H. Romar and J. Konttinen (2018). "Adsorption of furfural from torrefaction condensate using torrefied biomass". Chemical Engineering Journal, 334 558-568.

T.R.K.C. Doddapaneni, R. Praveenkumar, H. Tolvanen, M.R. Palmroth, J. Konttinen and J. Rintala (2017). "Anaerobic batch conversion of pine wood torrefaction condensate". Bioresource Technology, 225 299-307.

B. Emadi, K.L. Iroba and L.G. Tabil (2017). "Effect of polymer plastic binder on mechanical, storage and combustion characteristics of torrefied and pelletized herbaceous biomass". Applied Energy, 198 312-319.

B. Fahimnia, J. Sarkis and H. Davarzani (2015). "Green supply chain management: A review and bibliometric analysis". Int. J. Production Economics, 162 14.

Y.Y. Gan, H.C. Ong, P.L. Show, T.C. Ling, W.-H. Chen, K.L. Yu and R. Abdullah (2018). "Torrefaction of microalgal biochar as potential coal fuel and application as bio-adsorbent". Energy Conversion Management, 165 152-162.

R.M. Gargouri, R. Shabou and C. Francoeur (2010). "The relationship between corporate social performance and earnings management". Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 27 (4), 320-334.

E. Giuliani (2005). "Cluster absorptive capacity: why do some clusters forge ahead and others lag behind?". European urban and regional studies, 12 (3), 269-288.

S.H. Han, L. Meng, A. Rahman, Y. Ko, M.S. Cho and B.B. Park (2017). "Torrefied wood effects on the seedling quality of Zelkova serrata and Fraxinus rhynchophylla in a containerized production system". Forest Science Technology, 13 (4), 145-151.

J.E. Hirsch and G. Buela-Casal (2014). "The meaning of the h-index". International Journal of Clinical Health Psychology, 14 (2), 161-164.

S.K. Hoekman, A. Broch and C. Robbins (2011). "Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of lignocellulosic biomass". Energy & Fuels, 25 (4), 1802-1810.

IEA, "Perspectives for the Clean Energy Transition: The Critical Role of Buildings".(2019). International Energy Agency, 117.

S. Kanwal, N. Chaudhry, S. Munir and H. Sana (2019). "Effect of torrefaction conditions on the physicochemical characterization of agricultural waste (sugarcane bagasse)". Waste Management, 88 280-290.

J. Kiel, "Torrefaction for upgrading biomass into commodity fuel".(2011).

B. Kitchenham, "Procedures for performing systematic reviews".(2004). Keele University, 1-26.

J. Koppejan, S. Sokhansanj, S. Melin and S. Madrali, "Status overview of torrefaction technologies".(2012). 1-54.

H.S. Lau, H.K. Ng, S. Gan and S.A. Jourabchi (2018). "Torrefaction of oil palm fronds for co-firing in coal power plants". Energy Procedia, 144 75-81.

T. Mamvura and G. Danha (2020). "Biomass torrefaction as an emerging technology to aid in energy production". Heliyon, 6 (3), e03531.

P. McNamee, P. Adams, M. McManus, B. Dooley, L. Darvell, A. Williams and J. Jones (2016). "An assessment of the torrefaction of North American pine and life cycle greenhouse gas emissions". Energy Conversion and Management, 113 177-188.

D. Medic, M. Darr, B. Potter and A. Shah (2012). "Effect of torrefaction process parameters on biomass feedstock upgrading". Fuel, 91 8.

F.G. Montoya, A. Alcayde, R. Baños and F. Manzano-Agugliaro (2018). "A fast method for identifying worldwide scientific collaborations using the Scopus database". Telematics and Informatics, 35 (1), 168-185.

L.J. Nunes and J.C. Matias (2020). "Biomass Torrefaction as a Key Driver for the Sustainable Development and Decarbonization of Energy Production". Sustainability, 12 (3), 922.

V. Ochoa, V. Guillermo, J.N. Alvarez and C. Acevedo (2019). "Research evolution on renewable energies resources from 2007 to 2017: a comparative study on solar, geothermal, wind and biomass energy". International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, 9 (6), 12.

T. Ogura, Y. Date, M. Masukujane, T. Coetzee, K. Akashi and J. Kikuchi (2016). "Improvement of physical, chemical and biological properties of aridisol from Botswana by the incorporation of torrefied biomass". Scientific Reports, 6 (1), 1-10.

T. Onsree and N. Tippayawong (2020). "Torrefaction of maize residue pellets with dry flue gas". BioEnergy Research, 13 (1), 358-368.

G. Pahla, F. Ntuli and E. Muzenda (2018). "Torrefaction of landfill food waste for possible application in biomass co-firing". Waste management, 71 512-520.

E. Papadopoulou, P.J. de Wild, S. Kountouras and K. Chrissafis (2018). "Evaluation of torrefaction condensates as phenol substitutes in the synthesis of phenol-formaldehyde adhesives suitable for plywood". Thermochimica Acta, 663 27-33.

C. Park, U. Zahid, S. Lee and C. Han (2015). "Effect of process operating conditions in the biomass torrefaction: A simulation study using one-dimensional reactor and process model". Energy, 79 127-139.

M.-A. Perea-Moreno, E. Samerón-Manzano and A.-J. Perea-Moreno (2019). "Biomass as renewable energy: Worldwide research trends". Sustainability, 11 (3), 863.

M.J. Prins, K.J. Ptasinski and F.J. Janssen (2006a). "More efficient biomass gasification via torrefaction". Energy, 31 (15), 3458-3470.

M.J. Prins, K.J. Ptasinski and F.J. Janssen (2006b). "Torrefaction of wood: Part 2. Analysis of products". Journal of analytical and applied pyrolysis, 77 (1), 35-40.

A. Pritchard (1969). "Statistical bibliography or bibliometrics". Journal of documentation, 25 (4), 348-349.

S. Proskurina, J. Heinimö, F. Schipfer and E. Vakkilainen (2017). "Biomass for industrial applications: The role of torrefaction". Renewable Energy, 111 265-274.

C. Rehn, U. Kronman, C. Gornitzki, A. Larsson and D. Wadskog, "Book Bibliometric Handbook for Karolinska Institutet". (2014).

J.M.C. Ribeiro, R. Godina, J.C.d.O. Matias and L.J.R. Nunes (2018). "Future perspectives of biomass torrefaction: Review of the current state-of-the-art and research development". Sustainability, 10 (7), 2323.

P. Rousset, F. Davrieux, L. Macedo and P. Perré (2011). "Characterisation of the torrefaction of beech wood using NIRS: Combined effects of temperature and duration". Biomass and bioenergy, 35 (3), 1219-1226.

A. Sarvaramini, O. Gravel and F. Larachi (2013). "Torrefaction of ionic-liquid impregnated lignocellulosic biomass and its comparison to dry torrefaction". Fuel, 103 814-826.

M.M.I. Sheikh, C.H. Kim, H.J. Park, S.H. Kim, G.C. Kim, J.Y. Lee, S.W. Sim and J.W. Kim (2013). "Effect of torrefaction for the pretreatment of rice straw for ethanol production". Journal of the Science of Food Agriculture, 93 (13), 3198-3204.

M.A. Sukiran, F. Abnisa, W.M.A.W. Daud, N.A. Bakar and S.K. Loh (2017). "A review of torrefaction of oil palm solid wastes for biofuel production". Energy Conversion and Management, 149 101-120.

M. Svanberg and Á. Halldórsson (2013). "Supply chain configuration for biomass‐to‐energy: the case of torrefaction". International journal of energy sector management,

R. Swaminathan and F.N.P. Nandjembo (2016). "Design and Testing of a Solar Torrefaction Unit to Produce Charcoal". Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems, 6 (03), 66.

D. Tapasvi, R.S. Kempegowda, K.-Q. Tran, Ø. Skreiberg and M. Grønli (2015). "A simulation study on the torrefied biomass gasification". Energy Conversion Management, 90 446-457.

N. Tippayawong, T. Onsree, T. Williams, K. McCullough, B. MacQueen and J. Lauterbach (2019). "Catalytic torrefaction of pelletized agro-residues with Cu/Al2O3 catalysts". Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery


A.T. Ubando, D.R.T. Rivera, W.-H. Chen and A.B. Culaba (2019). "A comprehensive review of life cycle assessment (LCA) of microalgal and lignocellulosic bioenergy products from thermochemical processes". Bioresource technology, 291 121837.

M. Van der Stelt, H. Gerhauser, J. Kiel and K. Ptasinski (2011). "Biomass upgrading by torrefaction for the production of biofuels: A review". Biomass and bioenergy, 35 (9), 3748-3762.

N.J. Van Eck and L. Waltman (2010). "Software survey: VOSviewer, a computer program for bibliometric mapping". Scientometrics, 84 (2), 523-538.

J. Wannapeera, B. Fungtammasan and N. Worasuwannarak (2011). "Effects of temperature and holding time during torrefaction on the pyrolysis behaviors of woody biomass". Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 92 (1), 99-105.

W.B.A. WBA, " Global Bioenergy Statistics".(2019). Bioenergy Europe,

Y. Yang, M. Sun, M. Zhang, K. Zhang, D. Wang and C. Lei (2019). "A fundamental research on synchronized torrefaction and pelleting of biomass". Renewable Energy, 142 668-676.

Q. Zhang, J. Hu and D.-J. Lee (2017). "Pretreatment of biomass using ionic liquids: research updates". Renewable Energy, 111 77-84.



DOI: 10.31686/ijier.vol9.iss1.2898

How to Cite

Carneiro-Junior, J. A. de M., Teles, E. O. ., Fernandes, F. M., Alves, C. T. ., Melo, S. A. B. V. de, & Torres, E. A. . (2021). Torrefaction as a Pre-Treatment of Biomass: A Bibliometric Analysis. International Journal for Innovation Education and Research, 9(1), 289–313.
Received 2020-12-14
Accepted 2021-01-05
Published 2021-01-01