Natural Radioactivity in Some Building Materials Originating from a High Background Radiation Area

Main Article Content

Kinsara A.A
Shabana E.I
Qutub M.M.T

Abstract

Twenty four samples of building materials, collected from utilized quarries dispersed randomly in a high natural background radiation area, were analyzed for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K by γ-spectrometry. This area lies in Hail province, Saudi Arabia. The collected samples were fragmented granites, granite gravels with clays, sands and crushed black rocks (mafic metavolcanic rocks). The results showed that the highest activity concentrations were found in the fragmented granite materials and ranged from 144-207, 671-1058 and 964-1440 Bq/kg with average values of 194, 912 and 1320 Bq/kg for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. The lowest activity concentrations were found in the black rock materials which ranged from 19-39, 47-125 and 212-306 Bq/kg with average values of 24, 82 and 255 Bq/kg for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. The radioactivity levels in the other materials lie somewhere in between. Granites and clays exceeded the proposed hazard indices for the usage as building materials and should be restricted, whereas the sands and the crushed black rocks complied with these indices and can be used without restrictions.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
A.A, K., E.I, S., & M.M.T, Q. (2014). Natural Radioactivity in Some Building Materials Originating from a High Background Radiation Area. International Journal for Innovation Education and Research, 2(6), 70-78. https://doi.org/10.31686/ijier.vol2.iss6.195
Section
Articles
Author Biographies

Kinsara A.A, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

Faculty of Engineering, Nuclear Engineering Department

Shabana E.I, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

Faculty of Engineering, Nuclear Engineering Department

Qutub M.M.T, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

Radiation Protection and Training Centre

References

H. Florou, and P. Kritidis, “Gamma Radiation Measurements and Dose Rate in the Coastal Areas of a Volcanic Island, Aegean Sea, Greece”, Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 45 (1992) 277-279. [2] A.T. Ramli, “Environmental Terrestrial Gamma Radiation Dose and its Relationship with Soil type and Underlying Geological Formation in Pontian District, Malaysia”, Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 48 (1997) 407-412. [3] B. Erlandsson, B. Jakobsson and G. Jonsson, “Studies on Radon Concentration in Drinking Water from the Horst Soderasen in Southern Sweden”, J. Environmental Radioactivity, 53 (2001) 145 – 154. [4] R.M. Anjos, R. Veiga, T. Soares, A.M.A. Santos, J.G. Aguiar, M.H.B.O. Frasca, J.A.P. Brage, D. Uzeda, L. Mangia, A. Facure, B. Mosquera, C. Carvalho, P.R.S. Gomes, P.R.S., “Natural Radionuclide Distribution in Brazilian Commercial Granites”, Radiation Measurements, 39 (2005) 245-253. [5] P.G. Killen, and K.S. Heier, “A Uranium and Thorium Enriched Province of the Fennoscandian Shield in Southern Norway”, Geochimica Acta. 39 (1975) 1515-1524. [6] J.M. McNeal, D.E. Lee, and H.T. Millard, Jr., “The Distribution of Uranium and Thorium in Granitic Rocks of the Basin and Range Province, Western United States”, J. Geochemical Exploration, 14 (1981) 5-40. [7] V. Ruzicka, “Vein uranium deposits”, Ore Geology Reviews. 8 (1993) 247-276. [8] G. Faure, Principles of Isotope Geology. John Wiley & Sons: ISBN 0471864129 (1986). [9] M.T. Menager, M.J. Heath, M. Ivanovich, C. Montjotin, C.R. Barillon, J. Camp, and S.E. Hasler, “Migration of Uranium from Uranium Mineralized Fractures into the Rock Matrix in Granite: Implications for Radionuclide Transport Around a Radioactive Waste Repository”. Proc. 4th Intern. Conf. Chemistry and Migration Behavior of Actinides and Fission Products in the Geosphere (Migration 1993), Charleston, USA, Dec., 1993, Radiochimica Acta 66/67, 1994: 47-83 [2/7, A4]. [10] M.P. Elless, A.Q. Armstrong, and S.Y. Lee, “Characterization and Solubility Measurements of Uranium-contaminated Soils to Support Risk Assessment”. Health Physics, 72 (1997) 716–726. [11] E.I. Shabana, A.A. Kinsara, and H.N. Natto, “Ground Surveys in an Area of High Terrestrial Background Radiation, Hail Province, Saudi Arabia”, World Academy of Science and Technology. Stockholm, Issue 79 (2013) 1208-1214. [12] E.B. Ekren, D. Vaslet, A. Berthiaux, P.L. Strat, and J. Fourniguet, “Explanatory Notes to the Geologic Map of the Hail Quadrangle, Sheet 27E, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia”. Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources, Deputy Ministry for Mineral Resources, Accompany map GM-115C. (1986) p. 3.[13] A.A. Kinsara, E.I. Shabana, Sk.A. Latif, N.I. Nassef and N.I. Molla, “Determination of Natural Radioactivity in Charcoal Fly Ash Samples of the Saudi Arabia”, Bangladesh Journal of Radiation Protection, 5 (2012) 7-12. [14] J. Beretka, and P.J. Mathew, “Natural Radioactivity in Australian Building Materials, Industrial Wastes and By-products”, Health Physics, 48 (1985) 87-95. [15] NEA (Nuclear Energy Agency), “Exposure to Radiation from Natural Radioactivity in Building Materials”, Report by NEA Group of Experts, OECD, Paris (1979). [16] EC (European Commission) Report on: “Radiological Protection Principles Concerning the Natural Radioactivity of Building Materials”, Radiation Protection, (1999) p. 112. [17] United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), “Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation”, UNSCEAR Report to General Assembly with Scientific Annexes. United Nations. New York (2000). [18] L.A. Currie, “Limits for Qualitative Detection and Quantitative Determination: Application to Radiochemistry”, Analytical Chemstry, 40 (1968) 586-593. [19] J.J.W. Rogers, and J.A.S. Adams, “Uranium”, K.H. Wedepohl, ed., Handbook of Geochemistry. Springer, Berlin, (1969) Cap. 92. [20] A.A. Shanbhag, S.J. Sartandel, T.V. Ramachandran, and V.D. Puranik, “Natural Radioactivity Concentrations in Beach Sand of Ratnagiri Coast, Maharastra”. J. Association Envirin. Geochemists, 8, (2005) 304-308. [21] United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), “Sources and effects of ionizing radiation”, United Nations, New York (1988). [22] Y.X. Yang, X.M. Wu, Z.Y. Jiang, W.X. Wang, J.G. Lu, J. Lin, L.M. Wang, and Y.F. Hsia, “Radioactivity Concentrations in Soils of the Xiazhuang Granite Area, China”, Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 63, (2005) 255- 259. [23] E. Francias, “Simple Technologies for Charcoal Making”. FAO Corporate Document Repository, FAO Repository Paper. 41, (1997) Chap. 10. [24] S. Dziri, A. Nashab, A. Nourreddine, A. Sellam, and D. Gelus, Experimental and Simulated Effective Dose for Some Building Materials in France., World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology 3 (2013) 41-45. [25] M. Gupta, and R.P. Chauhan, “Estimating Radiation Dose from Building Materials”, Iranian Journal of Radiation Resources, 9 (2011) 187-194.